Live Updates: Turkey Awaits Outcome of Pivotal Elections

“There are deficiencies in the legal system here, also nepotism, lack of merit,” he said. “We had the earthquake, and the government didn’t even intervene,” he added. “But our minds were made up before the earthquake.”

In conversations with more than a half dozen voters in the earthquake zone on Sunday, all said they were supporting Mr. Erdogan’s main challenger, Kemal Kilicdaroglu, who represents a coalition of opposition parties. They cited not only the government’s response to the earthquake, but its handling of the economy in recent years, when inflation has surged.

They said it was depressing to return to the earthquake zone and see that the government had only removed rubble, but taken no other discernible actions to pave the way for residents to return. A number of them said they would like to come back to their homes, but given the lack of progress, they cannot.

Many of those who fled the destruction of the quake zone faced difficulties voting. Hundreds of thousands moved to other cities, while at least 2.7 million still in the hard-hit zone live in tents, shipping containers or other makeshift housing in heavily damaged neighborhoods. That is a substantial share of the nearly nine million eligible voters in the 11 quake-affected provinces of southern Turkey.

Almost every Turkish citizen over the age of 18 can vote, and there is no requirement to register. But voters are assigned a polling station based on their permanent residential address.

That means those displaced by the earthquakes — many of whom lost loved ones, homes, cars, vital documents and other belongings — had less than six weeks after the disaster to change their addresses through the government’s online platform. They had until April 2 to do it in person in election board offices.

Mr. Dayanir, a 25-year-old tobacco representative, said his family was voting for the opposition candidate because they want change.

“We are hopeful,” he said. He lost an uncle, aunt and other family members in the earthquake.

“If we didn’t pull them out with our own hands, we would have lost my cousins under the rubble also,” he said, lamenting the government’s rescue efforts as insufficient.

Seeing his hometown in ruins, he said, left him depressed, but he was cheered to meet friends he hadn’t seen since before the disaster.

“We will all come back here at a certain point,” he said.

His family drove their own car to Antakya to vote, but did not manage to get the reimbursement for gas that Turkey’s disaster management agency had promised, Mr. Dayanir said. Still, for him, it was worth it.

“I had to come,” he said. “It’s our duty.”

Kadife Dik, a 66-year-old woman living on her husband’s pension, also returned to Antakya with her family to vote and found that all of their belongings were stolen from their destroyed home. They sat pensively on the side of a road, facing the heavily damaged building where they once had lived.

She said the government didn’t take care of the earthquake survivors and complained that the deteriorating economy is another hurdle to her starting a new life now. She supported Mr. Erdogan’s challenger.

“I am hungry for change,” she said.

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